"3D printers have a lot to learn
from the sewing machine"

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Opinion: a digitally-driven revival of interest in sewing proves that people want to create, but the 3D-printing movement is failing to cater to a market that wants something practical and beautiful, says Alexandra Lange.


In March, Slate Magazine's Seth Stevenson provided a public service when he borrowed a Solidoodle 4, pitched as the "accessible", "affordable" 3D printer, and attempted to print a bottle opener from Thingiverse. Results, as they say, vary, but he ended up, after a series of phone calls and false starts, with "a functionless, semi-decorative piece of plastic."

The bumbling encounter with technology is a popular stratagem for Slate, but here it pointed directly to the reason we're not seeing a 3D printer in every den. I've seen those rhino heads, those dinosaur skulls. They do not fill me with delight, but remind me instead of the cheap toys my kids bring home from birthday parties and I throw away in the night. Why bother? How is printing your Triceratops at home more creative, more making, than buying one from a store? In either case, step one is scrolling through pages of online options, pointing and clicking in 2D.

Stevenson concluded that 3D printing was no place for amateurs, but for tinkerers. Those able to work under the hood of the printer: to understand the terms in the manual, to customise or create their own products for Thingiverse. For such tinkerers, neighbourhood printing hubs like Techshop, where subscribers can go to use physical or digital tools, make more sense. Designers taking advantage of 3D printers' capabilities for rapid prototyping and small-batch production have already started farming out the actual printing to places like Shapeways. When we stopped having to fax even weekly, we all got rid of those machines.

But then Stevenson took a turn toward the larger question of craft. He wrote, "Once upon a time, people purchased sewing patterns (like a program from Thingiverse) and yards of fabric (like filament) and they made their own clothes. I wasn't alive back then, but I'm pretty sure the process sucked."

I must be older than Stevenson, because my mother and grandmother sewed clothes for me. My mother, aunt and I have all sewed clothes and quilts for my children. They are not amateurishly constructed. We managed to make them while also holding down full time jobs. And judging from the extremely active online sewing community, the active trade in old machines and patterns on Ebay, and the ease with which one can locate a scan of a thirty-year-old sewing machine manual, the digital age has not turned sewing into a novelty, but spawned a revival of interest. In fact, if 3D printers are truly going to become a consumer good, they have a lot to learn from the sewing machine.

Because Stevenson snidely generalised from his own limited experience, he missed the instructive dialogue between craft and the machine age. Post-industrial sewing is not a freak but a respite. In Evgeny Morozov's recent New Yorker essay on the new makers, he quotes historian Jackson Lears' critique of the Arts & Crafts movement as "a revivifying hobby for the affluent." I'd say middle-class: (mostly) women who aren't seeing what they want, at a price they can afford, in the marketplace.

There’s an appetite for the "refashion," recycling an old dress or an adult T-shirt, and turning it into something new. Once upon a time, the use of flour sacks as fabric prompted grain-sellers to start offering their wares in flowered cotton bags. If some boutique grain company began doing that again, there would be a run on their product. Under the technology radar, there's a community of people sharing free patterns, knowledge and results, without the interpolation of brands, constantly obsolescent machinery, or the self-serving and myth-making rhetoric Morozov finds in Chris Anderson's Makers. There are the answers to the questions "Why bother?" and "How creative?" Rather than sewing being a cautionary tale, 3D printing can't become a consumer good until it learns a few lessons from why we sew now.

Number one: what's not available on the market. If you have a girl child in America, it is often difficult to find reasonably-priced, 100 per cent cotton clothing for her without ruffles, pink or purple, butterflies and hearts. If you go to the boy section, you run into an equally limiting set of colors, navy and army green, and an abundance of sports insignia. A full-skirted dress, a petite skirt, prints for the plus-sized – there are plenty of styles that are not novelties but, when not in fashion, disappear from stores. Online you can find patterns to make any of the above for less than $10, and fabric at the same price per yard. Online you can find step-by-step explanations, with photos, of how to make that pattern. That world of patterns is vast, constantly updated, and historically rich. Yes, sewing your own garment will take some time, but then you will have exactly what you want. That's why women bother.

The consumer-facing side of 3D printing is Thingiverse, where you can download a digital file (like a pattern) to tell your 3D printer what to print. This is a little different than sewing because, while you can choose your filament (at $43 per roll), you don't have much input. You are not cutting, pinning. You are not customising. And a skim of the offerings suggests not so much items not on the market, or even items desperately needed, but items to show off that you 3D printed something. Vases, figurines, intricate and unwearable wearables. Why spend the time or money? Even at the Makerbot showroom in Boston, they showed nothing that was useful (a jet-pack bunny) and few things that were beautiful (honeycombed Easter eggs). All objects, no problem-solving.

The only 3D printed object I have ever desired is the Free Universal Construction Kit, designed to allow one to attach Lego to Bristle Blocks to Zoob. It definitely solves a problem not addressed by the market. It's not on the market because the rival toy manufacturers have no interest in getting everything to connect. I still wouldn't want to print it at home: I would rather send the job to the Makerbot showroom, and let someone else mind the machine, because my input would be minimal.

Second lesson: recycling. Say my mother did actually sew something amateurishly. That's not the end of the story. A mis-printed jet-pack bunny is so much trash (unless I buy a second machine like a Filabot to remelt my filament). A mis-sewn seam can be ripped out and redone. An old dress can be refashioned into a new one. A favorite vintage piece can be copied. Sewing does not create more waste but, potentially, less, and the process of sewing is filled with opportunities for increasing one's skills and doing it over as well as doing it yourself. What are quilts, after all, but a clever way to use every last scrap of precious fabric?

So far, 3D printing's DIY aspects seem more akin to the "magic" of an ant farm, watching growth behind glass. Sewing lets the maker find their own materials, and get involved with every aspect of the process. 3D printing could do this, and there are classes, but even at the Makerbot showroom the primary interaction seemed to be ordering from Thingiverse. My local sewing shop has to teach more women to sew to survive; I don't see the printer makers coming to the same conclusion.

In addition, the machines themselves are constantly becoming junk. It's not unusual for new technology to change quickly. That's the fourth Solidoodle since 2011. Makerbot is on its fifth generation. It is early days for 3D printing, and the machines may eventually stabilise. But the rapid obsolescence suggests a lifecycle closer to that of a mobile phone than of a washing machine, which might also turn consumers off. The sewing machine was considered a lifetime purchase.

Last but not least, sharing. This is the one consumer area where 3D printing approaches sewing's success. From the Free Universal Construction Kit to full-body scans, the idea of open-source, free, and social-media enabled printing has been built-in to the 3D process. Showing off what you made is better when you created it, rather than printed it out. On the sewing blogs, the process pictures are half the fun, and most of the interest. What does it really teach your children when you can get doll house furniture on demand, except a desire for ever-more-instant gratification? For me to believe in 3D printers as a home machine, I'd have to see the digital file equivalent of women in their off-hours, making up patterns as they go along, sharing mistakes, dreaming better dreams. 3D printing feels bottled up, professionalised, too expensive for the experimentation of cut and sew and rip and sew again.

Stevenson wrote, "most people would much rather just get their clothes from a store — already assembled by people employing industrial-level efficiency and a wide variety of materials," and that's true. What Solidoodle and Makerbot and the rest should be looking at is the people who have seen everything in the store and found it wanting.

Sewing machine image courtesy of Shutterstock.


Alexandra Lange is a New York-based architecture and design critic. She is a Loeb Fellow at Harvard's Graduate School of Design for academic year 2013-2014 and is the author of Writing About Architecture: Mastering the Language of Buildings and Cities as well as the e-book The Dot-Com City: Silicon Valley Urbanism.

  • lookatme

    Though it’s not extremely common to see real live 3D-printed products for sale in the wild, there are innovative products being produced and sold constantly these days. Just search “3D printed” on Etsy and be amazed at the number of transactions that have come from the selling of these products. Products that the seller on Etsy could have only make with a 3D printer.

    I understand that 3D printing can be a challenging skill to master in the “amateurs” eye, but so would a sewing machine, or any craft that would justify being paid for. As for the longevity of the machines, I think it is only relevant to the work you do. An entry level 3D printer can be compared to an entry level sewing machine. It will do what you need it to, though If you need it to do more, then there are other, more costly options – However, if you are a “tinkerer” then you can just upgrade your machine accordingly.

    On a more professional note: I also feel that the incredible success of Kickstarter is partly due to the fact that “amateurs” can learn how to make investment earning prototypes with this technology. Not necessarily engineers or designers, but entrepreneurs that are willing to roll up their sleeves to make their ideas a reality.

    In my opinion, 3D printing is ready for the open minded. I guess like anything new, the pioneers must blaze the trail until the masses run out of excuses (or alternatives) to not follow suit.

  • Derrick Mead

    Well argued and thought-provoking – thanks!

  • Iikka Keränen

    In order for 3D printing to become like sewing, or crafts in general, we need to tackle the issue of creating the 3D models to be printed. Buying models from the web is no different than if you had bought something already manufactured.

    Unfortunately, 3D modelling is currently a technical skill that takes significant amount of studying before you can do anything novel or useful. The software required is expensive, or inapproachable to a layperson. This is a big contrast to sewing, where anybody can learn the basics in one lesson.

    There are some interesting things that could be done now, such as a scanning app for a cell phone that would allow you to make facsimiles of an object (or a person!), but it’s still not creating something from your imagination.

    Perhaps someone could make an intuitive sculpting tool using one of the virtual reality headsets that are becoming popular again? The key requirement is that it must be as immediate and approachable as play-dough or legos. Literally, a child should be able to create something, and then print it out to put it on her shelf.

  • madlab.cc

    How about a sewing machine as a 3D printer?

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qc-tGbMN9Ms

  • http://www.lesbetes.com Severn Clay-Youman

    I think the author might look at CNC paper-cutting machines (Cricut, etc). These, while 2D, are essentially scaled-down industrial CNC cutters, marketed specifically towards suburban women doing scrapbook and craft projects.

    While many of them are dumbed-down, with built-in cartridges full of Disney characters, some of them can be loaded with custom designs. The forums are full of discussions of open-source vector drawing programs.

    I think we often assume that “disruptive” tools like 3D printers, personal computers, laser cutters, start with the creative class and diffuse slowly into the rest of the country; I think there is an untold story of rural and suburban DIY and maker movements that grew perhaps out of a lack of access to media and ready-made goods that we take for granted (ham radio, for instance).

    My father bought our first personal computer in the early 80’s from the local feed store – it was being sold to farmers who, without an office staff, still needed bookkeeping, spreadsheets, projections (it was an upgrade from a very complicated electronic calculator that read magnetic cards).

  • Duime

    What the world really needs are cheap and portable CNC plasma cutters, mills and router tables not stupid plastic extruding contraptions that need excessive maintenance.

    The egg-heads need to figure out a way to make CNC stuff cheaper, train people easily, and open garages or workshops to fabrication in steel, wood aluminium etc. Breed the next batch of engineers who produce actually useful things that are durable and not needing to be on TV fawning about how cool their Keanu Reeves printed doll is cool.

    3D printing is great but it is not commercially profitable and won’t be for a while except for the equipment sellers and ABS plastic merchants. Therefore it is not intelligent to promote it as the leader of any revolution in product deliveries on any scale.

  • http://photographicrambles.blogspot.com/ Drackar

    If you think the history for 3D printers involves a lot of stuttering progress, you might want to do some research into the history of your beloved sewing machine. It was a hundred years between the invention of the first sewing machine and the first commercially available production model. It was another 50 years before your average home user could afford one.

  • keal

    This is an interesting article and certainly raises some valid points, but it does seem to be comparing apples and oranges.

    Couple of rebuttals in favour of 3D printing:

    1. Sewing machines have been around as a consumer good for over one and a half centuries. Consumer available 3D printers have been around for a decade? We haven’t even begun to see what mass 3D printing can do for the world.

    2. Having no experience with 3D printing at all, I purchased one, unpacked it, and within 15 minutes I was printing something I downloaded, a bracelet for my sister, a couple of hours it was done, she was happy and I was satisfied having made it for her. That’s the value proposition and that’s why people will continue to purchase them, for that feeling of satisfaction and perceived creativity.

    3. After a while of printing toys for friends kids and nicknacks for myself I embarked on solving a problem that had been plaguing me for months, a bracket for a carburettor on a classic motorcycle I’m restoring that I could not source. After a 15-minute measure up and a few hours in a free 3D design program. I had a bracket, printed it and it worked a charm. Useful no?

    4. You still don’t see a sewing machine in every household.

    5. If you’re paying $43 a roll for filament you are getting taken for a ride.

  • geoff Duke

    Fantastic observations. As someone who has been in design and manufacturing at the makers end for the last 35 years (toolmaker/ machinist) I am very dubious of the enthusiasm 3D printers have engendered.

    They have their place, but in my opinion it is really in the development and prototyping area and as you pointed out they have a lot of work to do before they are useful for much else.

  • Beaulecaste

    Opples and Aranges. 3D printing is non-comparable to 2D sewing. And as the guy somewhere below me said – it took a good 50 years for the sewing machine to originally reach the homes of an average person, as it was first only used in factories and often huge.

    3D printers on the other hand have been out for a while and has just started it’s volition into the average Joe’s life. It went from industry only, to tinkers (now and in the last 10 years), and has started to enter the average Joe’s hands.

  • Joshua Young

    I absolutely love this article. Can’t believe more people haven’t commented. It’s as if my subconscious had already come to this conclusion and everything has now come to light. I feel like most of the criticisms though could be handled fairly simply.

    1: This may already be a thing, but if 3D printable plastics were strong and could be used for more than just prototypes, the possibilities would grow infinitesimally.

    2: If the 3d modelling software was easier to use, and appeared less daunting, more people would probably be apt to join in.

    I do agree that the focus needs to shift from the 3D printer to a more well-rounded process, including the software. With that said, though, while I see the creative wonder in sewing, I personally am more daunted by that process than by 3D printing. In part because I am a whiz with Sketchup and Rhino and have never in my life used a sewing machine. So I think the author may be a little biased and is taking their hard-earned sewing skills for granted, probably because it seems so natural to them at this point. Not uncommon.

    And similar to the 3D printing process, sewing machines, at least a decent one, seem to be cost prohibitive if you’re not planning on sewing much. So I think there might be more similarities than this article suggests. As for the creative process differences, this could easily be overcome with some basic software knowledge (not unlike the skills needed to operate a sewing machine properly). They really need to change their focus, though.

  • Julie G

    I hear a lot of defensiveness in favor of the 3D printer when reading the comments, and honestly, I hear condescension as well. I’d like to argue on behalf of the sewing machine.

    One thing that was left out of this otherwise very well-written piece was the vast chasm in depth and breadth of raw materials between those used in sewing and those used in 3D printing. Textiles exist in many, many forms, from the most basic cotton poplin, which sews like a dream, to challenging slippery matte jersey, to loopy terry and napped and flocked velvets, which require special handling, to leather and denim which require heavy-duty needles, etc.

    The variety of colours, prints, textures and hands (yes, a fabric’s hand is a technical term), are limitless. The raw materials of 3D printing, on the other hand, inspire me to create nothing that I can think of off-hand. Unless, like a commenter stated below, I needed to prototype something, like maybe a part for my Singer.

    I also get the feeling that the “Makers” commenting here are primarily male, and that they look down upon the sewing machine as some sort of inherently inferior clunker associated with those ‘lowly’ traditionally female art forms. Let me first say that no, you can’t learn the basics of sewing in one lesson. I could teach you how to thread a hand needle, sew a straight stitch, and tie a knot at the end in one lesson. To teach you how to thread a sewing machine, use the stitch regulator, set the tension, choose and change needles, thread a bobbin, insert and pull through a bobbin, and sew a seam that doesn’t pucker, stray or slip would take a week of full-time instruction.

    And then you’d need someone over your shoulder for another three weeks before you could translate that small amount of knowledge into creating a garment. The pattern alterations, prototype making, fittings, and finishing required to make something you’d actually like to wear can not be taught like you teach a kid to tie his shoe.

    Believe me, if you’ve never designed something to cover the human form, which is ITSELF 3D, that also moves with it, opens and closes over it, and looks attractive on it, then you’ll never understand why it takes a Bachelor of Science degree to get the most entry level design job in the Apparel industry.

    I got excited about the 3D printer when I first saw one in use, and then I thought, “well that was cute, a plastic pumpkin.” Oh, well.

  • Josie

    Interesting article! The only thing you’re missing is that any reasonably computer savvy person can learn to create their own 3D model. It takes a bit of work and time if you’re not highly technical, but it’s not any harder than sewing. :)

  • Heather James

    As has been pointed out, the first sewing machines and the first computers were barely recognisable compared to what we use today. The tablet I am using to type this comment was a science fiction dream 25 years ago, when I was playing Oregon Trail with its little green stick figures on the Apple 2E’s in my high school library.

    The tablet wasn’t even a thing 7 years ago, when I didn’t pony up the extra cash for a wifi capable printer, because we weren’t using wifi. Now, I need to replace it because this tablet ONLY prints via wifi. The 3D printers can actually do much more than what has been discussed here. For example, printers that print metal may not be on the consumer market, yet, but they do exist. And 3D printers are doing major, important things in the medical world–like turning prosthetic manufacture utterly on its ear.

    The first home computers were toys that weren’t terribly useful, too. And not that many people bought them. In 10 years, everyone will have a 3D printer. And they will be orders of magnitude more capable than what we have now.

  • Ashley

    As someone who taught myself to sew and to 3D model, I largely disagree. If you want to learn either skill, the resources are there. It took me years to learn how to properly make my own clothing, and years to be a competent 3D modeller. Downloading something from Thingiverse is like downloading a sewing pattern made by anyone with some paper and a pair of scissors.

    Maybe it’s good and maybe it’s not. But there are a lot of great free CAD softwares and plenty of Youtube tutorials to get you going on making your own models that you can be proud of, ranging from very user friendly (Tinkercad, 123D, Meshmixer, Sculptris) to professional (as someone fully employed as a CAD modeller, I use Rhino for Mac, which is free).

    I think what offends me most here is that the author seems unwilling to learn how to model herself, when that spirit of innovation is what she loves about sewing. I get the same wonderful feeling of pride when I sew something functional as when I get a perfect 3D print from something I designed and prototyped myself.

  • keithwwalker

    For those interested, The Secret Life Of Machines did an episode on the history of the sewing machine:
    http://youtu.be/g_qLCdrbU78
    It’s a dated documentary, but an EXCELLENT one.

  • Jens Chr Brynildsen

    I think this article is really great, but the author misses her own point? Consumer 3D printers have only been around for six years. That’s when the patent for FDM printers elapsed and making printers for consumers became possible, so it’s very natural that few have them. When 3D printers have been available for a little longer, I think we’ll see a clear pattern in who buys one.

    A sowing machine, much like a 3D printer will usually be purchased by someone that has an urge to create something. This in itself prevents it from being attractive to the ordinary consumer that just wants to consume. All creators are usually consumers as well, but the average consumer has no interest in making things.

    Anyone can print an existing model, but that in itself does not make a 3D printer something that everyone needs. I see 3D-printing as a craft that must be learnt. Not the operation of the printer itself, but using it for something other than printing existing models require skills. Those that have crafting skills can create things that the average consumer can only dream of. For 3D-printing to be useful, it’s not a matter of printing plastic toys, but rather to solve real problems or create new products.

    When I was a kid, anything made of plastic could not be repaired. 3D-printing solves that as long as you know how to make a 3D model. This is 100% comparable to buying new clothes vs repairing them. The average consumer will buy new pants. The creator will mend the existing ones, re-use them or even make them even cooler.

    3D-printing also solves making hard-to-get spare parts and other things that are not commercially available. My primary use of my 3D printer is to make things that does not yet exist. It’s not to print novelty items for the kids. It can however be used for both and it is thus VERY comparable to sowing. Many have a sowing machine but mostly for the bragging rights or in the event that something needs to be mended.

    I think 3D printers today can serve a very similar purpose, but the future potential is much bigger than in sowing machines. Imagine if companies like IKEA made available 3D models of all their spare parts. It would be nice just to print it rather than driving to pick up a tiny plastic piece that was missing in the package? Imagine when 3D printers become just as fast, easy to use and get the same print resolution as traditional 2D printers? Why not print those single-use cups and plates for the family party, but with a picture of the birthday-boy/girl on them? It could all be printed in renewable corn-based PLA plastic.

    For now, 3D printers will be used by the DIY crowd (much like sowing machines), but that can change quickly.

  • B

    3D artists do all of this already. The problem is we are a society of consumers entering ill-prepared the age of personal manufacturing. Design literacy will be as necessary in the near future as computer literacy is today.