The uniforms were unveiled today and will be rolled-out across the V&A in South Kensington and Museum of Childhood in Bethnal Green this week.
The collection is designed as a mix-and-match range that includes T-shirts, polos, crew-neck jumpers, bomber jackets, lightweight jackets and rainproof parkas.
For his designs, Raeburn opted for a range of blue and orange tones.
Some pieces are decorated with a print that Raeburn based on 20 iconic objects from the museum's collection – including a 19th-century Japanese scultpure in the shape of a rabbit; a Spacehopper from 1970s Britain, Gian Lorenzo Bernini's sculpture Neptune and Triton, and a 1870s rocking horse.
The collaboration between V&A and Raeburn, who studied nearby at the Royal College of Art, began when he presented his work at the Fashion in Motion exhibition in 2016.
"Exploring the Victoria and Albert Museum was one of my earliest childhood memories," said Raeburn.
"I went on to study fashion design a stones throw away at the Royal College of Art and would spend hours delving into the archive at the V&A so having this opportunity to develop responsibly designed uniforms for an institution so close to my heart has been an incredible honour," he continued.
Known for his responsible approach to design, Raeburn has ensured all textiles used are either recycled or organic.
This so-called "remade ethos" has previously seen the designer use material salvaged from an inflatable life raft to create outerwear and accessories for his Autumn Winter 2015 menswear collection.
Pieces feature detailing that is typical of the designer's aesthetic, including parachute-style details and layering – giving them a "contemporary" look.
"We are delighted to have worked with Christopher Raeburn on these brilliant, colourful, adaptable new uniforms," said V&A director Tristram Hunt. "They are an exciting development for our team and a reflection of the V&A's contemporary style."
The new uniforms come at the end of a big year for the V&A, which began with the museum appointing Hunt as its new director.
In June, Stirling Prize-winning architect Amanda Levete and her firm AL_A completed the new porcelain-tiled entrance and underground exhibition hall, while September saw Carmody Groarke unveil its new members' room, featuring mirror installations that provide reflected views of spaces inside and outside the building.