The recognition comes just a few weeks after a team she is leading won a competition to extend Chicago O'Hare international airport.
Among Gang's completed buildings are the WMS Boathouse and the Aqua Tower, both in her hometown of Chicago. She is also building a new 95-storey tower in the city, Vista Residences, set to be the world's tallest building designed by a woman.
"Jeanne Gang has the WOW factor," said actress and playwright Anna Deavere Smith, who advocated for Gang in a tribute on the Time 100 website. "Her stunning Aqua, in Chicago, is the tallest building ever built by a woman. Now she's building an even taller one."
"For Jeanne, architecture is not just a wondrous object," continued Smith. "It's a catalyst for change. Her sleek, woody boathouses are helping to revive the polluted Chicago River by filtering runoff organically."
"Her Polis Station concept aims to improve the way civilians interact with law enforcement by fusing police stations with civic recreational centres," she added. "She recently tested the idea in one of Chicago's most violent neighbourhoods, adding a basketball court to the 10th District police station in North Lawndale."
Time 100 is an annual list of 100 leaders, innovators and celebrities, which the US magazine deems to be global influencers. Other people to make the list this year include Donald Trump, Benjamin Netanyahu, Ariana Grande and Samin Nosrat.
Gang is the second female architect in a row to make the list, following Elizabeth Diller's inclusion in 2018.
There are many other women on this year's list, ranging from celebrities to politicians. These include Sandra Oh, Chrissy Teigen, Nancy Pelosi, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, Lady Gaga and Michelle Obama.
Gang has been vocal in the past about promoting equality in the architecture industry. She has closed the gender pay gap at her firm. Speaking to Dezeen last year, she said that firms needed to be challenged.
"We should start to think about asking people to declare if they have closed their pay gap, the same way we declare the 2030 challenge for the environment for example," Gang told Dezeen. "Maybe that would put a little more pressure to close the gap."
Studio Gang is headquartered in Chicago and has offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris. Recent designs unveiled by the studio include a luxury high-rise in Hawaii and a twisting tower in San Francisco, which has just topped out.
Gang was born in Belvedere, Illinois in 1964. She studied architecture at the University of Illinois and Harvard Graduate School of Design and worked with OMA in Rotterdam before founding Studio Gang in 1997.