The Nike Zoom Superfly Elite shoe was developed specifically for Fraser-Pryce, who won gold medals in the 100 metres track event at the Beijing 2008 and London 2012.
It features a tightly woven upper and a base plate influenced by the geometric structures of ocean organisms. Both of these are lightweight and stiff.
Nike worked with the athlete to analyse her sprint and create the optimum plate stiffness for the shoe, with the goal of shaving one tenth of a second off her personal best time.
"Fraser-Pryce knows she's unbeatable through 70 metres," said Nike. "But between that point in the race and 80 metres is when she's got to battle to maintain her lead."
Digital design and rapid-prototyping technology allowed the team to create multiple iterations of the shoe for Fraser-Pryce to test on the track.
Fixed spikes were chosen instead on screw-ins, allowing the foot to be as close to the track as possible and increasing traction.
"Add all the advances together and Fraser-Pryce is moving quicker, for longer, and getting incrementally closer to her next personal best," said Nike.
The shoe comes in Nike's latest colour combination, selected to reference Brazil's tropical wildlife.
The mix of bright pink and the brand's signature volt green will be applied across its athletics footwear range this summer.
Nike has developed its latest apparel from the designs worn by runners in London four years ago. These included the Nike Zoom Superfly R4 sprinting shoe, which was based on suspension bridges, and the Nike Zoom Victory Elite worn by 1,500-metre runners.
Martin Lotti, the brand's global creative director for the London 2012 Olympics, explained some of the key innovations in a series of movies made by Dezeen.
Rio 2016 takes place from 5 to 21 August, where athletes from Team GB will wear kits designed by Stella McCartney for Adidas.